Adiposity and Weight Management
More than a decade of evidence has established that obesity is a disease rather than a failure of will.1-3 Its prevalence among US adults has climbed from 30.5% to 37.7% within 15 years (1999-2014).4 Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, asthma, gallbladder disease, chronic back pain leading to early retirement, and osteoarthritis leading to joint replacement, as well as a variety of cancers, including breast, endometrial, ovarian, colorectal, pancreatic, and kidney cancer.5-8 Abdominal obesity (waist circumference >35 inches for women, >40 inches for men) is a component of the metabolic syndrome (Table 1), which raises cardiovascular risk.9,10 Among individuals with metabolic abnormalities (having at least two of the following: dyslipidemia, hypertension, and elevated blood glucose), obesity has been associated with more rapid cognitive decline.11
This supplement is intended for physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, CDEs, and other clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of metabolic and endocrine disorders.
DONNA L. JORNSAY, MS, CPNP, CDE, CDTC
CHRISTINE KESSLER, CNS, ANP, BC-ADM, CDTC, FAANP
DAVIDA F. KRUGER, MSN, APRN-BC, BC-ADM
ELLEN D. MANDEL, DMH, MPA, PA-C, RDN, CDE
LUCIA M. NOVAK, MSN, ANP-BC, BC-ADM, CDTC
JOYCE ROSS, MSN, ANP, CRNP, FPCNA, FNLA
SCOTT URQUHART, PA-C, DFAAPA
KIM ZUBER, PA-C
Method of Participation
Participants should read the activity information, review the activity in its entirety, and complete the online post-test and evaluation. Upon completing this activity as designed and achieving a passing score on the post-test, you will be directed to a webpage that will allow you to receive your certificate of credit via email or you may print it out at that time.
The online post-test and evaluation can be accessed at https://tinyurl.com/meds16suppl
Inquiries may be directed to Global Academy for Medical Education [email protected] or (973) 290-8225.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the University of Cincinnati and Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC The University of Cincinnati is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The University of Cincinnati designates this Live Activity for a maximum of 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) is accredited with distinction as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation. This educational activity for 1.3 contact hours is provided by Postgraduate Institute for Medicine. Pharmacotherapy contact hours are .4 for Advance Practice Registered Nurses and will be designated on your certificate.
Primary care providers are often the first point of care for diabetes and kidney disease. The Metabolic & Endocrine Disease Summit 2016, a CME/CE conference, explored the latest advances in the management of these conditions. Obesity raises the risk of many other conditions. Providers would benefit from a discussion of how to address this frequently encountered problem in clinical practice. Lipoprotein (Lp) (a) is an inherited, independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New therapies show some promise for addressing this form of dyslipidemia. Diabetes raises the risk of major depressive disorder, and depression increases the risk of diabetic complications. Psychosocial intervention can improve glycemic control and symptoms of diabetes-related distress. Nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes but glycemic control, careful choice of medications, and regular monitoring can promote renoprotection.
Diabetes presents issues throughout a patient’s life; three touchpoints are the transition of a young adult from pediatrics to adult care, the detection and management of diabetes during pregnancy, and diabetes in the older adult. Anticipation of the relevant issues and implementation of a transition program can contribute to retaining young adults in care. Preconception counseling and early detection of diabetes can reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. Clinicians must be knowledgeable about how to balance the many complex issues to consider when establishing glycemic targets and selecting a treatment plan for an older adult with diabetes. At this writing, four new insulin-only preparations have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since February 2015. The ability to differentiate these options is important for clinicians.
After reading and studying this journal supplement, participants should be better able to:
- Differentiate the many insulin options available to treat people with diabetes, and their applications in clinical practice
- Display an understanding of the contributors to and consequences of obesity, and interventions to address unhealthy weight
- Evaluate the contribution of elevated Lp (a) to vascular risk and its influence on treatment
- Apply the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) glycemic goals and pharmacologic recommendations in the context of individual patient concerns and practical limitations.
- Incorporate consideration of renal function in monitoring, medication choice, and general management of diabetes
- Understand common errors in medication choice and dosing that are associated with kidney injury, and plan how to avoid them
- Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of depression—and its treatment—on diabetes
- List tools to assess and manage depression in patients with diabetes
- Identify risks of transition of young adults with diabetes from pediatric to adult services, and list elements of successful transition
- Demonstrate familiarity with assessment and treatment recommendations for older adults with diabetes
- Detect and manage pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus to reduce risk of complications for the mother and child during and after pregnancy
In accordance with the ACCME Standards for Commercial Support of CME, the speakers for this course have been asked to disclose to participants the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) (e.g., paid speaker, employee, paid consultant on a board and/or committee for a commercial company) that would potentially affect the objectivity of his/her presentation or whose products or services may be mentioned during their presentation. The following disclosures were made:
Planning Committee Members
Susan P. Tyler No Relevant Relationships
Rick Ricer, MD No Relevant Relationships
Eileen McCaffrey No Relevant Relationships
Sylvia Reitman No Relevant Relationships
Shirley Jones No Relevant Relationships
The following PIM planners and managers, Judi Smelker-Mitchek, RN, BSN, Trace Hutchison, PharmD, Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD, CHCP, and Jan Schultz, RN, MSN, CHCP, hereby state that they or their spouse/ life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this activity of any amount during the past 12 months.
Donna L. Jornsay, MS, CPNP, CDE, CDTC, has indicated that she is a Consultant for Becton, Dickinson and Company and Eli Lilly; a Shareholder of Medtronic Diabetes; and is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Insulet.
Christine Kessler, CNS, ANP, BC-ADM, CDTC, FAANP, is a Consultant for AstraZeneca, Medtronic, and Novo Nordisk; and is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Novo Nordisk.
Davida F. Kruger, MSN, APRN-BC, BC-ADM, has indicated that she is on the Advisory Board of Abbott, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk; and Intarcia; on the Speaker’s Bureau for Abbott, Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk, Valeritas; has stock in Dexcom; and received grants/research support from Astra Zeneca, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Helmsley Foundation, Lexicon, and Novo Nordisk, and receives research support of 40% salary from NIH.
Ellen D. Mandel, DMH, MPA, PA-C, RDN, CDE, has nothing to disclose.
Lucia M. Novak, MSN, ANP-BC, BC-ADM, CDTC, has indicated that she is on the Speaker’s Bureau for AstraZeneca, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, and Novo Nordisk.
Joyce Ross, MSN, ANP, CLS, CRNP, FPCNA, FNLA, has indicated that she is a on the Advisory Board for Akcea Therapeutics, Kaneka America, Kastle Pharma; and on the Speaker’s Bureau for AbbVie, Amarin, Amgen, Kaneka America, KOWA, and Sanofi/Regeneron.
Scott Urquhart, PA-C, DFAAPA, has indicated that he is on the Advisory Board for AstraZeneca and Shire; a Consultant for Abbott and Acella Pharma; and on the Speaker’s Bureau for Abbott and AstraZeneca.
Kim Zuber, PA-C, has indicated that she is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Amgen and Janssen Pharmaceuticals.
All information provided by program participants is confidential and will not be shared with any other parties for any reason without permission.
Contact Information for Technical Questions
Please technical questions or concerns to Global Academy for Medical Education at 973-290-8225 or email [email protected].
The faculty acknowledge the editorial assistance of Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, and Eileen McCaffrey, medical writer, in the development of this supplement. It has been reviewed and approved by the faculty as well as the editors of Clinical Endocrinology News.
Neither the editors of Clinical Endocrinology News nor the Editorial Advisory Board nor the reporting staff contributed to its content. The opinions expressed are those of the faculty and do not necessarily reflect the views of the supporter or of the Publisher.
Copyright © 2017 by Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, Frontline Medical Communications Inc., and its Licensors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, will not assume responsibility for damages, loss, or claims of any kind arising from or related to the information contained in this publication, including any claims related to the products, drugs, or services mentioned This continuing medical education (CME) supplement was developed from faculty presentations at the Metabolic & Endocrine Disease Summit October 5 - 8, 2016.
1. Stanley S, Wynne K, McGowan B, Bloom S. Hormonal regulation of food intake. Physiol Rev. 2005;85(4):1131-1158.
2. Frayling TM, Ong K. Piecing together the FTO jigsaw. Genome Biol. 2011;12(2):104.
3. Day FR, Loos RJ. Developments in obesity genetics in the era of genome- wide association studies. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011;4(4):222-238.
4. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, KM. F. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS data brief, no. 219. Hyattsville, MD: 2015.
5. Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:88.
6. Wickman C, Kramer H. Obesity and kidney disease: Potential mechanisms. Semin Nephrol. 2013;33(1):14-22.
7. Arnold M, Pandeya N, Byrnes G, et al. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: A population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(1):36-46.
8. Whiteman DC, Wilson LF. The fractions of cancer attributable to modifiable factors: A global review. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;44:203-221.
9. Lorenzo C, Williams K, Hunt KJ, Haffner SM. The National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation, and World Health Organization definitions of the metabolic syndrome as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(1):8-13.
10. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285(19):2486-2497.
11. Singh-Manoux A, Czernichow S, Elbaz A, et al. Obesity phenotypes in midlife and cognition in early old age: the Whitehall II cohort study. Neurology. 2012;79(8):755-762.
12. Klok MD, Jakobsdottir S, Drent ML. The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review. Obes Rev. 2007;8(1):21-34.
13. Dietrich MO, Horvath TL. Limitations in anti-obesity drug development: The critical role of hunger-promoting neurons. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11(9):675-691.
14. Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004;1(3):e62.
15. Romero-Corral A, Caples SM, Lopez-Jimenez F, Somers VK. Interactions between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: Implications for treatment. Chest. 2010;137(3):711-719.
16. Regnier SM, Sargis RM. Adipocytes under assault: Environmental disruption of adipose physiology. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842(3):520-533.
17. Lai KP, Chung YT, Li R, Wan HT, Wong CK. Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis. Environ Pollut. 2016;218:923-930.
18. Suzuki K, Jayasena CN, Bloom SR. The gut hormones in appetite regulation. J Obes. 2011;2011:528401.
19. Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(17):1597-1604.
20. Zhang Y, Xie C, Wang H, et al. Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;311(2):E530-541.
21. Moreno-Navarrete JM, Ortega F, Serrano M, et al. Irisin is expressed and produced by human muscle and adipose tissue in association with obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(4):E769-778.
22. Martin CK, Heilbronn LK, de Jonge L, et al. Effect of calorie restriction on resting metabolic rate and spontaneous physical activity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(12):2964-2973.
23. Executive summary: Guidelines (2013) for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/
American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Obesity Society published by the Obesity Society and American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Based on a systematic review from the The Obesity Expert Panel, 2013. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22 (Suppl 2):S5-S39.
24. Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1481-1486.
25. Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, et al. Pharmacological management of obesity: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(2):342-362.
26. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Decision memo for intensive behavioral therapy for obesity (CAG-00423N). Available at: https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/nca-decision- memo.aspx?&NcaName=Intensive%20Behavioral%20Therapy%20for%20 Obesity&bc=ACAAAAAAIAAA&NCAId=253.
27. Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, et al. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(13):1218-1229.
28. Mallipedhi A, Prior SL, Barry JD, Caplin S, Baxter JN, Stephens JW. Temporal changes in glucose homeostasis and incretin hormone response at 1 and 6 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2014;10(5):860-869.
29. Albaugh VL, Flynn CR, Tamboli RA, Abumrad NN. Recent advances in metabolic and bariatric surgery. F1000Research. 2016;5:F1000 Faculty Rev-1978.